What are the technology trends in the field of optical communications worth paying attention to in 2023?

Generally speaking, the current focus of the domestic optical communications industry is focused on the following directions:

1. Full implementation of 400G
2. Accelerated deployment of G.654.E optical fiber
3. The rise of LPO
4. FTTR and 50G PON
5. High-performance computing cluster network

1. Full implementation of 400G

After years of preparations upstream and downstream of the industry chain, this year, the domestic optical communications backbone network will finally usher in the full implementation of 400G.

According to the information provided by experts at the meeting, driven by the “digital data in the east and computing in the west” strategy and the vision of building a “computing power network”, operators are actively deploying all-optical transport capacity construction and carrying out 400G construction and trial operation:

China Telecom has built the first 400G all-optical transport network in the Greater Bay Area, and the ChinaNet backbone network has completed the 400GE IP+ optical long-distance transmission live network pilot.

China Mobile has built a 400G all-optical test network across the four provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Guizhou, and is preparing to launch relevant deployment and implementation by the end of 2023. (It is reported that the centralized procurement of 400G in the province will start in October.)

China Unicom has built 400G trial networks in Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and other places.

400G high-speed interconnection is another upgrade of all-optical transport capacity. It is the result of all-optical forwarding, low latency, high-speed optical modules and other technologies. Its goal is to provide deterministic carrying and the ability to account for quality.

The current reality is that with the massive construction of data centers, the demand for backbone network bandwidth continues to increase. Overall, the inter-provincial export bandwidth will reach the level of over 100 Terabits.

In terms of latency, the basic requirements put forward by our country’s east-to-west computing strategy are: 1 millisecond within the city, 5 milliseconds from the city to the hub node, and 20 milliseconds between hub nodes.

So these all mean that it is imminent to upgrade the backbone network to 400G.

After years of exploration, the single-wavelength 400Gb/s system based on 130GBaud baud rate and QPSK modulation method has become the first choice for domestic long-distance trunk line construction.

CCSA has now completed the release of standards for metropolitan 400G and long-haul 400G, and standards for metropolitan 800G and 400G ultra-longhaul are also in the process of being compiled.

In terms of band expansion, the C6T+L6T band (a total of 12 T) has also become a consensus.

It is worth mentioning that in addition to 400G, technical research and standard construction of 800G and 1.6T are also progressing steadily. Some manufacturers have launched samples and are conducting trials.

Optical modules for 800G and above are continuously being developed in multiple standards organizations. Some standards, such as IPEC, 800G Portal and CCSA, have already been released. Most standards may be released one after another in 2024-2025.

Speed upgrading seems simple, but it involves spectrum expansion, optical device upgrades, module power consumption and volume control, integration requirements, and industrial chain reuse. It is really not as simple as imagined.

The road ahead is long and full of challenges.

2. Accelerated deployment of G.654.E optical fiber

I believe you have also recently seen China Mobile’s centralized procurement bidding announcement for G.654E optical fiber and cable products.

This purchase has accumulated 8,463 skin-length kilometers, equivalent to 1.2279 million core kilometers. Compared with the first 654E optical fiber centralized procurement in 2022 (2,134 skin-length kilometers, equivalent to 332,400 core kilometers), the scale of this centralized procurement has increased nearly 4 times!

The increase in G.654E optical fiber also pave the way for the comprehensive upgrade of the backbone network to 400G.

G.654.E optical fiber has the characteristics of ultra-low loss and low non-linearity, and has demonstrated very good performance in ultra-long-distance optical transmission. It has been unanimously recognized by the three major operators and will be used to build a comprehensive computing power network. Network backbone.

In terms of industry, G.654.E optical fiber has already achieved large-scale production capabilities and has entered the stage of engineering application.

At present, the total length of G.654.E optical fiber in China is only about 30,000 kilometers, accounting for less than 3% of the entire trunk network. In the next few years, the construction scale of G.654.E optical fiber has great potential.

In terms of performance, the loss of G.654.E optical fiber is expected to be optimized to 0.15dB/km in the future, and the transmission flatness of the entire C+L band may also be further improved. This will also be helpful for C+L band applications.

According to statistics, as of June this year, the total length of domestic optical cable networks has reached 61.96 million kilometers, and long-distance optical cable lines have exceeded 1.11 million kilometers.

As the construction of computing power networks further accelerates, 130 trunk optical cables need to be built around the computing power hub nodes.

These newly constructed new optical cable networks will further improve data transmission bandwidth and performance, which is conducive to the upgrade of network architecture.

In terms of fiber optic cables, there are two important technical directions worthy of attention.

First of all, the first one is spatial division multiplexing of multi-core few-mode optical fiber.

Spatial division multiplexing of multi-core few-mode optical fiber has become a feasible path to break through Pbps capacity.

This year, the National Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technology and Network of China Information Technology Group achieved a single-mode 19-core optical fiber transmission system experiment with a total transmission capacity of 4.1Pb/s and a net transmission capacity of 3.61P/s.

The super optical network constructed in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has a total length of more than 160 kilometers, connecting Guangzhou and Shenzhen. It uses FiberHome’s independent space division multiplexing optical fiber and cable technology to create the longest distance and largest capacity space division multiplexing in the world. Optical communication systems.

Standardization around spatial division multiplexing is also being gradually advanced.

In TC6 of China Communications Standards Association, three research topics related to space division multiplexing have been established. In September last year, the ITU-T SG15 meeting released the “Technical Report on Space Division Multiplexing Transmission”.

In general, domestic and international standards organizations are very concerned about this area.

Another important direction is hollow-core optical fiber.

Hollow core fiber, as the name suggests, has an air or vacuum core in the center of the fiber instead of glass or other materials. It is considered a disruptive technology with the characteristics of large bandwidth, low latency and low loss, and is widely favored.

Because the entire medium changes and is transmitted in the air, the delay per kilometer is reduced by 1.54 microseconds.

In terms of ultra-low loss, the theoretical minimum loss can be less than 0.1dB/km. Currently, the one disclosed by the University of Southampton is 0.174dB/km.

Another very important feature of hollow-core optical fiber is that it has ultra-low nonlinearity.

At present, hollow-core optical fiber has attracted a lot of industry attention. Its standardization of optical cable structures and collaborative innovation with transmission systems are still in the early stages, and many institutions are participating in pre-research.

A bottleneck worthy of attention in hollow-core optical fiber is the drawing length.

Currently, solid optical fiber can stretch 10,000 kilometers. However, the limit of hollow-core optical fiber is only 10 kilometers, which is a difference of 3 orders of magnitude. This directly brings huge cost differences and affects large-scale production.

3. The rise of LPO

Last year and the beginning of this year, we were still discussing CPO/NPO. Now, LPO is here again.

As we mentioned earlier, driven by the demand for data bandwidth, optical modules have evolved from 400G to 800G and further to 1.6T.

As the speed increases, problems such as integration and power consumption of traditional pluggable optical modules will become very difficult to solve.

Previously, the industry proposed CPO and NPO. Now, LPO (Linear Pluggable Optics, linear pluggable optical module) is proposed.

LPO replaces the traditional DSP with linear-drive technology and transfers the corresponding overall compensation function to the module’s analog electrical chip and the corresponding ACK Serdes functional unit, achieving low loss, low power consumption, and low latency. , low cost and hot-swappability, etc., have relatively large advantages.

LPO maintains the module’s pluggable form. According to industry data, the power consumption of LPO is 50% lower than that of traditional pluggable optical modules, which is close to that of CPO.

After adopting the linear direct drive solution, the power consumption of silicon photonics, VCSEL, and thin film lithium niobate can be reduced by about 50%.

Low power consumption not only saves power, but also reduces the heat generated by components within the module.

After removing the DSP chip, the system reduces the time for signal recovery and the delay is greatly reduced.

DSP is relatively expensive, and the BOM cost of DSP accounts for about 20-40% of the 400G optical module. LPO’s driver and TIA integrate EQ functions, so the cost will be slightly higher than that of DSP, but the LPO solution can still reduce the cost of optical modules a lot.

Compared with CPO, LPO does not significantly change the packaging form of the optical module. It uses pluggable modules for easy maintenance and can make full use of existing mature technologies.

According to predictions, LPO will achieve mass production by the end of 2024.

Experts at the meeting also expressed different opinions on whether LPO is the optimal solution, believing that in-depth demonstration is needed through design and experiments.

LPO not only has advantages, but also disadvantages.

Because the DSP is removed, stronger SerDes is needed to compensate. And stronger SerDes means that the cost will become higher.

Previously, the most widely used optical module was based on 50G SerDes. Currently, 400G and 800G optical modules are all based on 100G SerDes, and in the future it will be 200G SerDes.

SerDes refers to the speed of the electrical part, and the speed of the optical part has also evolved accordingly. The impact of this evolution on the optical module is that the speed is constantly increasing.

LPO will also bring about interconnection issues. Not only the interconnection between switches, but also the interconnection and interoperability of traditional optical modules. This limits the application scenarios of LPO.

The technical details of LPO are still relatively complicated. Later, Xiao Zaojun will write a special article to introduce it.

By the way, encapsulation.

Traditional optical modules come in various packaging forms. With 400G, 800G, and 1.6T, this situation will change. Packaging formats are constantly converging, such as being reduced to QSFP-DD and OSFP, and related modules may be reduced to OSFP and CFP8.

The convergence of packaging formats is a good thing for industry development.

4. FTTR and 50G PON

At this meeting, another focus is on FTTR and 50G PON at the access network level.

Operators have been actively promoting FTTR in the past two years. At present, various operators have millions of users, and it is said that the number will exceed 10 million by the end of the year.

Operators also implicitly expressed that there is a certain lack of demand for FTTR for home users. Therefore, the focus of FTTR promotion has now begun to shift to a certain extent from FTTR-H (for families) to FTTR-B (for enterprises), including big B and small B (small and micro enterprises).

In terms of PON technology, the current trend is from 10G PON to 50G PON.

China will start promoting the construction of 10G PON around 2021. In less than 3 years, the entire Gigabit optical network has covered more than 500 million households and there are more than 100 million Gigabit users.

Now, what operators are actively carrying out technical verification and reserve is 50G PON. According to predictions, 2024-2025 will be the time for the launch of 50G PON. From 2027 to 2030, 50G PON will reach a certain scale.

At present, the standard formulation work of 50G PON has been basically mature. There are already many prototypes of related products, and operators have also organized trials.

From a technical perspective, 50G uplink is the most difficult and challenging. It is unrealistic for ONU to remain unchanged as before. Either integrating SOA or using high-power lasers remains to be further verified.

In addition to home scenarios, operators have begun to introduce PON technology into industry scenarios, such as industrial PON.

Industry scenarios have higher requirements for latency, so 50G PON needs to focus on improving latency capabilities. Industrial PON has certain requirements in terms of compatibility with multiple protocols in factories, remote power supply capabilities, and anti-interference capabilities. Its challenges are much more complex than those in home broadband scenarios.

In addition, it needs to be mentioned that the sinking of OTN is still progressing.

OTN point-to-multipoint quality dedicated lines can support OTN to further extend to users and further integrate OTN technology with existing ODN, transmission network, and access network. The access side passes through fixed allocation, and the transmission side passes through the hard pipes of OICO and ODO to achieve end-to-end hard isolated transmission.

5. High-performance computing cluster network

AIGC is the hottest topic this year. The optical communications industry has also been driven by the rapid development of AIGC large models and has achieved good performance.

I have written many articles about high-performance networks this year, introducing the network support technology behind the AIGC large model.

AIGC large models require a large number of GPUs to support calculations. The scale of the cluster is getting larger and larger, and the performance requirements of the cluster network are extremely high.

The bandwidth, delay, stability and reliability of the network directly affect the computing time of the GPU cluster and also determine the cost of the entire computing.

Currently, the mainstream technical routes are InfiniBand (IB) and RoCE solutions.

IB is NVIDIA’s private protocol, and the cost is too high, basically 3-5 times that of the latter. Therefore, more and more manufacturers are choosing the new Ethernet RoCE that is transformed from traditional Ethernet combined with RDMA technology.

RoCE is open source, and various manufacturers have related solutions. There are many choices and high cost performance.

Currently, the main GPU used in China is Nvidia A800 (A100 is not available). The interconnection bandwidth of A800 is 400Gbps and A100 is 600Gbps.

The interconnection bandwidth of H100 is as high as 900Gbps (H800 is 450Gbps).

Therefore, foreign countries are stepping up efforts to develop intelligent computing clusters based on 800G optical modules. We still focus on 400G, and the demand for 800G is not too strong. But continued pursuit is still necessary. In the next few years, we will just find ways to move from 400G to 800G.

From a macro perspective, RoCE provides a good opportunity for domestic manufacturers to catch up, and also provides domestic companies with options to develop AIGC large models.

Well, the above is the current progress in the key areas of focus in the domestic optical communications industry.

What’s ODN Network Construction?

What’s ODN Network Construction?

ODN Network Construction: Efficient and Digitalized Solutions

1.ODN network construction Introduction

The vision of the Fifth Generation Fixed Network (F5G) is to achieve Fibre to Everywhere. To realize this vision, it is essential to have a fast, flexible, and well-managed Optical Distribution Network (ODN) construction process.

Traditional ODN networking and construction face challenges such as low efficiency and disorganized resource management, leading to high costs. These challenges become more evident in low-density access scenarios where the deployment of optical fibers is both costly and inefficient. In the F5G era, ODN development should address these construction issues and enable flexible networking, rapid deployment, and visualized and manageable ODN systems.

What's ODN network construction?

2.ODN network construction Scope

To address these challenges, quick ODN construction and digital management solutions have been developed. These solutions enhance fiber deployment efficiency, enable digital resource management, and improve overall operation and management efficiency for carriers.

The system structure of the digitalized quick ODN includes pre-connectorized ODN product modules, digital labels, intelligent management terminals, and intelligent optical distribution network management systems.

While primarily applicable to intelligent optical distribution networks in access networks, it can also serve as a reference for other networks utilizing optical fiber connections. These optical distribution networks can gather ODN information through smart terminal devices, such as smartphones equipped with ODN management applications, and utilize digital labels within ODN devices.

For optical distribution networks that gather electronic label information through other methods, this document can be similarly referenced.

Join Bwnfiber at ICT COMM VIETNAM2023

Join Bwnfiber at ICT COMM VIETNAM 2023: Visit Booth G8!

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ICT COMM VIETNAM 2023 is a fantastic opportunity to explore the latest advancements in the ICT industry, network with professionals, and gain insights into emerging technologies. Don’t miss this chance to engage with industry experts and discover how Bwnfiber can meet your specific needs.

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What is IP Address for Router?

What is IP Address for Router?

You need to know the IP address of your router to access the settings of your router and configure connected devices. An IP address is a unique identification of a computer on a network, which can either be the Internet or a smaller network within your home. An IP address is also referred to as a public IP address, which is the IP address that your device has on the public Internet. The public IP address will change every time you connect your device to the Internet. You can find the public IP of your device using several online tools.

How to find router’s IP address

If you’re having trouble connecting to your router, you might want to find out how to find its IP address. This can be done in a few different ways. One way is to access your computer’s control panel. This will allow you to view your network’s settings and information. It also allows you to view the IP address of other connected devices.

The IP address of your router is called the default gateway. It can be found using the following methods. To find your router’s IP address, open the “Network and Internet” menu on your computer. Click on the “View Your Network Properties” link on the right side of the window. Once you’ve done this, your router’s IP address will show up next to the Default Gateway.

Once you have your router’s IP address, you can access the router’s web interface. You’ll need this to make changes to your network settings. For example, if you’d like to change your password, you’ll need to know your router’s IP address.

Another way to find the router’s IP address is to access your router’s administration page. There, you’ll find a tab with the IP address and the Default Gateway. You might need to scroll a bit to find it. In addition, if you’re using IPv6, you’ll need to know the IP address of the device you’re connecting to.

On a Mac, you can also find the IP address of your router by opening your Mac’s System Preferences. Go to the Network menu and choose Wi-Fi. Next, choose Advanced. Once you’ve done this, click the TCP/IP tab. Your router’s IP address should appear next to the textual default.

Private IP addresses

Private IP addresses are IP addresses used on a private network. These IP addresses are used in residential, enterprise and office environments. They are defined in both IPv4 and IPv6 specifications. You can use private IP addresses on a router to access the network. However, private IP addresses are limited in number. That’s why it is important to know how to create a private IP address range for your router. The ranges can be any length, but you must use a minimum of eight.

IPv4 is the most common internet protocol. It was launched in 1970 and consists of 32-bit numeric strings. IPv4 is only capable of supporting four billion unique addresses. Using private IP addresses allows you to conserve IPv4 addresses. The downside to private IP addresses is that they’re not publicly visible to others.

Private IP addresses are useful because they allow you to have a private network that doesn’t need to synchronize with the internet. Your router will only be able to receive traffic that’s from devices on your network. Private IP addresses also allow you to assign multiple addresses to each device connected to your network.

A private IP address is also called a local IP address. It is unique to a specific network. This is different from a public IP address, which can be accessed by everyone on the Internet. Because it’s local, private IP addresses are much more secure, since only devices on the network will be able to see each other.

When you setup your router, you must know its IP address. You can find this information in your router’s setup page. Your ISP can also use this information to determine the default gateway, which is the IP address your router uses for traffic that is destined to a destination outside of your network. This is what’s called NATing.

LAN side IP address

The LAN side IP address of a router is the IP address the router gives devices connected to it. Devices get this address one of three ways. The first is by asking the router for it when they first connect. This is known as DHCP and it is the most common way. The IP address is typically assigned to a device for a day or two. In some cases, the device can reserve an IP address and keep it for a longer time.

The second type of IP address is the administrative interface, or management interface. This is the IP address that is assigned to a device and is usually used to access the admin interface, also known as the web UI. However, it’s important to note that this is different from the IP address of the LAN interface. A router serves a dual purpose, making the wired LAN more accessible to devices, and increasing WiFi wireless coverage.

For PC users, the LAN side IP address of the router can be found in the network settings of the computer. It’s located next to Default Gateway. Sometimes, a computer user will have to scroll down a bit to find it. In IPv4, the IP address is separated by periods, while in IPv6 it is separated by colons.

The router uses a technique called Network Address Translation, or NNAT, to translate the IP addresses of local devices onto the IP address of the Internet. This makes the traffic appear as if it’s coming from the same IP address.


IP address and DHCP are two terms that describe how a router assigns and manages an IP address. A DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address to a computer when it wants to connect to the internet. This IP address is temporary and may not be the same if the computer disconnects and reconnects. In addition, a DHCP server will monitor the device’s usage and return the IP address if the device does not use it for a certain amount of time.

In addition, DHCP allows network administrators to easily manage IP addresses. This feature reduces the work of network administrators and helps large networks run more efficiently. The service also helps administrators manage user mobility by making available IP addresses that are no longer in use. In addition, DHCP helps administrators set time limits for IP addresses, preventing one device from using the same IP address for too long.

The DHCP process uses relay agents and servers to assign IP addresses. The client connects to the internal network and communicates with the DHCP server for its IP address. Once this process is complete, the device can go online and begin using the network. The DHCP server then responds with a list of available IP addresses and configuration options.

To check if your router is using DHCP, go to the network and click Network and Sharing Center. In the Ethernet window, locate the IPv4 Default Gateway. If you’re using a Mac, click on the Apple icon in the top left corner of the screen. Then click on the Network Connection option, and select Advanced. There, you’ll find your router’s IP address.


A router with NAT is a type of networking device that translates IP addresses. A NAT device has a pool of IP addresses that it uses when needed, and returns to the pool when it is no longer needed. For instance, if computer A needed an IP address from the pool, it would take it and hand it back, then use a different public address from the pool when it needed it again. Because of this, NAT devices have a limit on the number of users that can use the same public IP address.

NAT routers can also use a private IP address, allowing them to be routed through a private network. The NAT router will look up the destination IP address from the packet and translate it to a unique private network IP address. When a NAT device receives a packet that does not have a destination address, it will decline it. It does this by inspecting the data packet’s DNS A and PTR records before forwarding it to the destination.

The NAT router will use an address translation table to translate the destination address. This table will have a table that has the source address and the destination address. It will also have a timer and will delete the entries once the timer has expired. This is a good way to prevent NAT routers from reusing IP addresses.

NAT routers can be configured in various ways to provide different services. One such configuration involves allowing the private IP address to be used for internal network communication. DHCP assigns private IP addresses to devices on the network, so the private addresses will not conflict with the public IP address. NAT gateway routers can assign private IPs to external devices in the same network, saving the private network money and boosting security.

The Application of Fiber Optic Patch Cords

The Application of Fiber Optic Patch Cords

There are several different applications for fiber optic patch cords. These include High-density cabling environments, Long-haul transmission, Mode-conditioning, and Duplex transmission. Learn about these various types of cables in this article. Also, learn how to use these cables properly. The final step is to make sure the fibers are aligned.

High-density cabling environments

Fiber optic patch cords are used to connect switches, computers, and optical fiber distribution frames. They can be used for a variety of network applications including management, inter-device, and workspace subsystems. There are several types of fiber optic patch cords on the market.

Fiber optic patch cords are available in single-mode and multi-mode varieties. Single-mode fiber patch cords use a single strand of glass or plastic fiber, while duplex fiber patch cables have two strands of glass or plastic fiber on one end. Both types of fiber patch cables have different lengths, so it’s important to choose the one that best fits your cabling environment.

High-density cabling environments often require a high-density fiber solution. These high-density fiber solutions provide increased reliability and performance. High-density fiber enclosures also provide the flexibility to install fiber patch cables quickly and efficiently. They also help reduce the risk of faults caused by poor cable management.

Long-haul transmission

Fiber optic patch cords come in different types, including duplex, simplex, and multimode. A simplex patch cord uses a single strand of glass or plastic fiber, while a duplex patch cord uses two fibers that are placed side-by-side. Choosing which type to use depends on the distance between two devices.

LC patch cords are the most commonly used connector type in telecommunication applications. They are ideal for long-haul transmission and use a lower insertion loss connector. The insertion loss of common fiber connectors is approximately 0.75dB, but low-insertion-loss cables are only 0.2dB or less.

The inner core of a fiber optic patch cord is made of high-refractive-index material. The outer layer is made of aramid yarns to reduce the amount of bending. A quality patch cord will be able to handle bends without signal loss, and should not cause any physical damage. A fiber optic patch cord is approximately 125-um in diameter, while a multi-mode cable is fifty-two to sixty-two um in diameter.


A mode-conditioning fiber optic patch cord is a cable used to connect multimode fiber plants to transceiver modules. This type of cable has a unique offset mechanism, allowing the only mode of optical signal to be launched down the center of the fiber. This prevents multiple signals from competing with each other and causing errors. Because it eliminates multiple signals, it can be installed without additional fiber optic equipment.

A mode-conditioning fiber optic patch cord is a flexible solution for upgrading an existing network. The cable is available in two common lengths: 50/125 and 62.5/125. It is available with ST, LC, and SC mode-conditioning solutions. Depending on the application, it may be necessary to purchase more than one of these cables.

A mode-conditioning fiber optic patch cord consists of a core of high-refractive index fiber surrounded by a low-refractive-index coating. It is also reinforced with aramid yarns and comes with a protective jacket. These materials help prevent signal loss and physical damage. The inner diameter of a fiber optic patch cord is 125 um, which is slightly larger than the inner diameter of a single-mode cable.

Duplex transmission

Fiber optic patch cords can have either a simplex or full duplex construction. A simplex patch cable has one fiber and one outer jacket, and it is often used for one-way data transfer. A full duplex patch cable has two fibers, one at each end, and can transmit and receive data in both directions.

One common mistake when installing duplex connections is mixing up the transmit and receive sides of the cable. This happens because both sides of the fibers are not always visible at once, making it easy to mistakenly install the wrong end of the patch cord. This is inefficient and may even damage the eyes.

Duplex fiber optic patch cords use two strands of glass or plastic fiber, and they are available in various lengths. The length of the fiber patch cord should depend on the distance between the two devices.

What is an LC Connector?

What is an LC Connector?

If you have ever wondered what is an LC connector, you’re not alone. The types of LCs include duplex, simplex, and push-pull. However, there are some differences between them, so it’s helpful to learn about all of them before purchasing one.

LC connector

The LC connector is a type of connector that provides high-performance single-mode and multimode fiber connections. These connectors have very low insertion and return loss. They feature a small ceramic ferrule and can withstand temperatures from -40 to +75 degrees Fahrenheit. They are available in a range of colors, from blue to aqua. LC connectors also come in different configurations, including screw and snap-mount connectors.

LC connectors are available in single-mode, dual-mode, and multimode varieties. They are typically used for single-mode cables with up to 12 fibers. They are often found in high-density backplane and PCB applications. This connector is compatible with multiple standards, including TIA-PAE.

Another advantage of the LC connector is its size. It is roughly half the size of the SC connector and 2.5mm connectors, which makes it the most popular choice for business environments that require high density of connections. While cost is always an important consideration, other factors like density of connections and ease of use can help you make the best choice.

LC push-pull

One of the best things about LC push-pull connectors is their compact design. This allows for more connections per area. Additionally, they can be easily repositioned and are polarity-reversible. This is great for applications like patch cords for premise distribution systems and LANs.

Another great thing about PushPull connectors is that they are fail-safe. The connectors are equipped with an audible click to indicate that they have been properly plugged in. They also have color-coding, which prevents connection errors. They are also made of plastic, which makes them lightweight and durable.

The LC push-pull connector was developed by Lucent Technologies as a simplified connector for large-fiber-count applications. The 1.2mm ferrule is smaller than other connectors, and the footprint is half the size of other connectors. They are also compatible with SC and FC connectors, and have a non-optic disconnect.

There are several different types of LC connectors available. There are duplex LC connectors and LC-SC connectors. They are available in horizontal and vertical formats. Both are available in different sizes. For high-density applications, they are a great choice. They can be used for spliced-on and duplex connections. Moreover, they are pull-proof and low-loss.

LC duplex

The LC duplex connector is the most widely used connector type in the world. It combines the high performance of RJ-45 connectors with the reliability and safety of rack mounted equipment. Its unique design consists of two main parts: a connector body and a duplex clip. The latter connects the two connector bodies and actuates both latches at once. The duplex clip can come in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on the vendor. In some designs, the clip is solid, while in others, a slot is incorporated into both bodies.

The LC duplex connector is designed for multimode and single-mode fiber operation. Its small ceramic ferrules have a duplex pitch of 6.25mm and outer diameters of 1.25mm. They are characterized by low insertion and return loss. They are tolerant to temperatures ranging from -40degC to +75degC. The LC duplex connectors are also durable and can tolerate tensile loading of up to five pounds at 0degC and 10 pounds at 90degC.

LC simplex

The LC simplex connector is an optical connector designed for single-mode fiber. It features a compact design and has independent ceramic ferrules and housings. This compact connector also features an RJ-style latch. The LC simplex connector can be used for high-speed data transmissions and equipment cross-connects.

The LC simplex connector is available in a variety of configurations. These include single-mode PC and APC. These connectors come in white or black boot, and are compatible with 1.6 to 2.5 mm fiber optic cable. These connectors are designed to be installed at the end of a fiber optic cable. They are packaged in 500-piece bags, and are RoHS-compliant.

The LC simplex connector is available in single-mode and multi-mode versions, with boot connectors for SFP and SFF devices. Its elongated ferrule plug minimizes micro-bends.

Is Router and Modem the Same?

Is Router and Modem the Same?

Router and modem are two different devices that connect your home network to the Internet. They both provide Wi-Fi and have different functions. Knowing the differences between the two devices can make things easier when you have a problem. When you have trouble with your Internet connection, the first thing you should do is reconnect your modem or router. Once you do that, you can try to restore your connectivity.

Router and modem are two separate devices

While you might be familiar with the name “router”, you should really be familiar with the terms “modem” and “gateway.” In simple terms, a modem connects your home or office to the internet. It does so by demodulating and modulating electrical signals. These signals are then converted back into analog signals that can be read by any device.

A router is a computer device that pairs with a modem. Modern routers use the latest technology and include advanced networking capabilities as well as web hosting. A router with a dedicated modem will allow you to enjoy better performance and better security. You can also easily upgrade both devices without having to replace the entire system.

A modem and router combo is a convenient solution for a home with several devices. This device connects to your internet service provider and provides a wireless network for all your devices. These devices are not the same, so it’s important to choose the right model for your needs. A cable modem is different from a DSL or fiber optic modem. A modem with the wrong type will not work well with a combo box. Once you have decided on the type of device you need, it’s time to connect the modem to the router via its WAN port.

A modem and router combo are easier to install, configure, and use than separate devices. The modem router combo is a high-performance, premium device that does most of the work for you. They require only a few steps to install and configure, unlike a gateway, which is a complex and complicated device.

A router is necessary to connect to the Internet. However, a modem is limited to a single device, so a router is the best option for those who want to connect to the internet on more than one device. If you have more than one computer in your home, you may want to consider getting a modem and router combo, otherwise known as a gateway.

A modem is a hardware component that connects your home to your ISP. It converts incoming analog signals into digital signals that your computer can use. It is also used to send and receive digital signals from your ISP. The main function of a modem is to convert analog signals into digital ones.

They connect your home network to the Internet

When connecting your home network to the Internet, you will need both a modem and a router. Routers are small devices that connect devices to each other. These devices will also provide local network access. The main difference between a router and a modem is that a router is used for local network access, and a modem is used for Internet access.

A modem brings your internet service from the internet provider into your home and connects it to your router, which then distributes the connection to your home network. It’s an important component of a home internet system, as most people have more than one computer that they want to connect to the Internet.

A modem can be connected to multiple networks. The modem typically connects the computer network to the Internet via an Ethernet cable. However, a modem can be used independently or in combination with a router. You’ll want to determine the type of connection that you’re using. Your router will have a standard Ethernet port and will connect to your modem.

Routers are essential to connecting your home network to the Internet. They allow dozens of devices to communicate with each other and share information. They can be useful for streaming movies and receiving email, as long as they’re compatible with your Internet Service Provider’s network infrastructure. Many ISPs provide a router and modem in the same device. These devices will have the same components and software.

In some cases, a home network may require two separate devices. In such a case, the router will be used for connecting multiple devices, and the modem will be used for browsing the Internet. Having both devices will help you maintain a reliable network. So, it’s essential to select a modem and router that works for your home network.

A modem receives an analog signal from your ISP and converts it to a digital signal that the devices in your network can understand. The router then distributes this data throughout your home.

They provide Wi-Fi

A router and modem are both essential pieces of home networking hardware. The former receives information from your service provider, such as your ISP, and converts it into a digital signal. The router then pushes this signal out to all of your connected devices. While these two components may look similar, they function in very different ways.

The router connects all of the devices in your network to the Internet and creates a local area network. It can either be housed in the same box as the modem, or can be separate. It connects to multiple devices via Ethernet cords or a WiFi radio signal. It directs the flow of data and assigns a local IP address to each connected device. The router also allows you to share files and perform wireless printing.

A router is also used in homes without a modem. It replaces the wiring that the modem requires. It also broadcasts a Wi-Fi network, making it easy for any Wi-Fi device in range to connect to it. If you don’t have a modem, you can buy a single device to plug into the line-out of your home, and it’ll act as your Wi-Fi router.

Internet service providers provide these devices for their customers. Many of them also offer gateway options to simplify the setup process. Both routers and modems are essential parts of a network, but they serve different purposes. Modems decode a signal from your ISP, while routers provide Wi-Fi for all of your devices.

There are two main types of routers. The one you use will depend on your needs and budget. A modem provides internet access and is also the connection between your home and your ISP. A modem connects to the internet and is connected to your home via an Ethernet cable.

A modem and router are critical to set up a home network. While the router is smaller and more compact than a modem, it still helps to ensure you have Wi-Fi throughout your home. Both can work together to give you the best coverage for your Wi-Fi.

They have different functions

A router is a device that distributes internet traffic throughout the local network and assigns IP addresses to all devices. It can also send and receive data, including files and email. Routers can also be used to control the settings of your network, such as allowing smart home devices to communicate with one another.

Generally, a modem receives information from the service provider or ISP, then converts it into digital information, and the router pushes the information out to the rest of the network. They work at different levels, though, so they don’t necessarily interact with each other.

Both types of devices transmit data through cable or telephone lines. In a home network, they can connect a single computer to the internet or an entire home network. Nowadays, most internet connections are broadband, delivered via cable or DSL. If you don’t have cable or DSL, however, you can still connect to the internet with a modem. The difference is that modems have an ethernet port, which allows computers to connect directly to the device.

In most cases, a router is more powerful than a modem. It can handle multiple connections at once, allowing for more users to access the Internet without a wired connection. Both types are useful for home networks. Depending on your needs, you should have one or the other of the two.

A modem connects your home to the Internet, while a router is a device that helps connect multiple devices to a WiFi network. While they are often mistaken for one another, they have very different functions. In many cases, a router is more expensive than a modem, but they are often necessary. If a power outage hits your area, a router will provide a temporary solution to restore Internet service.

Although they may look similar, a router has more functionality. It can connect multiple computers and other devices to your network. It can also add more Ethernet ports to your network. While both devices are part of the same network, a modem is necessary to create and manage your network.

What Are Fiber Optic Cables Used For?

What Are Fiber Optic Cables Used For?

Fiber optic cables are cables that transmit data by sending pulses of light. They are used in high-speed data networking and even to light Christmas trees. Learn more about these cables in this article. You’ll be amazed at all the things you can do with them. Read on to learn more about the applications of fiber optic cables in our lives.

Fiber optic cables

Fiber optic cables are used in a variety of applications. The most common uses are for communication systems in buildings and data centers. There are two basic types of these cables. Simplex cables consist of a single strand of glass, with a transmit and receive connector on one end. Duplex cables, on the other hand, have a duplex configuration with one fiber transmitting and another receiving data. These cables are often used in one-way communications, such as monitoring applications, where sensors transmit time-sensitive data back to a centralized system.

The first type of fiber optic cable is referred to as multimode fiber optic cable. This cable has a minimum Modal Bandwidth requirement. It is also available in special jacketing to meet air-plenum requirements. The latter are designed for indoor or outdoor use.

They transmit data as pulses of light

Fibre optic cables transmit data as pulses in light, and the signals travel through the cable as light pulses. These pulses bounce off of materials at different locations, and they travel for many miles before they become weak and need to be regenerated. These cables can be spaced at up to 40 km apart.

Fibre optic cables are capable of sending high-speed information, but they have a limit. Their capacity to transmit information is limited by their attenuation, which is measured in decibels. A multimode fibre has an attenuation of around 3.5 decibels per kilometer. This attenuation makes it difficult to read a signal that has passed through the cable.

A fiber optic cable contains a single or multiple glass fibers. Each fiber has its own unique core and outer cladding, and these two components have different “refractive indices.” This means that light travels at different rates through different materials. During the transmission of data, light pulses from lasers or LEDs travel through the core and reflect back to the cladding.

They are used for high-speed data networking

Fiber optics are a type of communication technology that uses light waves to carry information. The technology was developed in the 1970s and was initially used in telecommunications. By 1988, fiber optics had connected the U.S. to Europe. More cables were laid over the years, and today a massive network of fiber optic cables spans the globe. The use of fiber optics has sped up communication, especially in the telecommunications industry.

There are two main types of fibre optic cables. Single-mode fibers are smaller and use a laser diode to send light through a tiny core. Multimode fibers have larger core openings and can carry multiple light pulses. While multimode fibers can transmit a signal over longer distances, they can reduce the amount of data transmitted and increase signal loss.

They are used to illuminate Christmas trees

A Christmas tree is a great way to decorate your home for the holiday season. Using a Christmas tree with fibre optic lighting can add an extra element of pizazz to your home. The lights used in this way are made from fibre optic cables, which are attached to a PCB. You can use other light sources as well, such as LEDs.

Fibre optic cables are commonly used for Christmas tree illumination. They can be placed in the base of the tree and then pass from there to each branch. This makes the tree easier to transport.

How to Pick a Fiber Wall Socket for Your Home

How to Pick a Fiber Wall Socket for Your Home

There are a variety of factors to consider when picking a fiber wall socket. These include port count, safety, durability, and cost. You should also look for a manufacturer’s warranty and customer reviews. A reliable manufacturer will stand behind their products. This ensures quality products.

Port count

Fiber wall sockets vary in their port count, and they are often more expensive than smaller varieties. However, the higher port count doesn’t always mean they are better. It’s still important to buy the highest-quality sockets. When choosing a fiber wall socket, look for a good manufacturer, which can guarantee quality at an affordable price.

Choose a brand with a good reputation. A popular brand will have a low defect rate, and you’ll get a better value for your money. Check the reviews of the brand, as this will help you determine if there are any problems with the product. You can also consider price and customer feedback. Ensure the fiber wall socket manufacturer has a good reputation with consumers.

When choosing a fiber wall socket, look for one that supports splicing and mechanical connection. Look for field-installable connectors and complete kits. These can be used to terminate fiber optic cables without a complicated process. Once installed, the connector can be used directly, or with compatible pigtails.

There are many different types of fiber wall sockets, and choosing one that meets your needs will give you the best results. Bwnfiber, for instance, offers a variety of different types that match FTTC, FTTD, and FTTC applications. Their fiber wall sockets are incredibly versatile and are made from high-quality materials. They can be easily installed, durable, and ensure the highest possible performance.

A fiber optic wall plate can hold up to four ports, depending on its configuration. Single-port models are generally used in a FTTH network, whereas multi-port models are needed for FTTD networks. There are even hybrid models available. Another way to divide fiber optic wall plates is by port orientation. Some are angled, while others are straight.


If you have a fiber network, you should check the durability of the wall sockets often to ensure optimal performance. Various factors can cause poor performance, including poor connections and poor end-finish. Luckily, you can avoid many of these issues by performing regular maintenance on your fiber wall sockets. However, you should always hire a qualified technician to do the repairs, and it is best to buy fiber wall sockets from a reputable manufacturer.

Before installing the fiber wall sockets, you should ensure that they are clean and free from dirt and debris. This is crucial in preventing damage or interruption. To ensure that your sockets are functioning properly, you should test them before you install them. This is important even if the fiber wall sockets appear to be in good shape.

A fiber wall socket is not difficult to install; all you need to do is follow the directions. There are several different types of fiber wall sockets, but all have certain features that can help ensure optimal performance. For example, a fiber wall socket can support splicing and mechanical connections. It can also be installed with factory-terminated pigtails. The fiber wall socket is a common choice for home and business use, and it works with both FC and SC connectors.

Fiber wall sockets can also be made of plastic and are typically made of high-flame-retardant polycarbonate. Bwnfiber fiber wall sockets are durable and offer excellent performance. They are ideal for FTTH, FTTB, and other applications. When you install fiber wall sockets, make sure you choose ones that are suitable for the specific network system you have.

In addition to durability, fiber wall sockets can be very stylish and can be easily installed. Bwnfiber’ fiber optic wall box, for example, has a sleek, modern appearance. Besides, it is fireproof and dustproof, making it perfect for indoor applications. If you’re not sure about installing fiber wall sockets, ask a professional for advice and help.

Fiber wall sockets can also be used for connecting optical drop cables at the customer’s premises. They are made of high-quality polycarbonate and are compatible with both FTTx and multi-mode fiber optic cabling. They can also support Core 2 and Core. Moreover, they are capable of meeting the requirements for cold and pigtail connections.


A fiber network can run optimally when its fiber wall sockets are properly maintained. However, seasonal changes can put these sockets at risk. Therefore, regular inspection is crucial. This can be done monthly or as needed. You should also keep a lookout for wet spots in your fiber wall sockets. These can cause serious problems.

If you see any of these signs, you should consult a professional to get the problem fixed. Failure to do so may cause permanent damage and may require replacement. Also, if you see even a slight dust or debris inside the socket, it will attract more dust and contaminants and may lead to even more damage.

To ensure your fiber wall sockets are safe and reliable, make sure they are clean before you install them. This will prevent any damage or disruption to the fibers. You should also test them for any potential faults. While you may not be able to spot problems before installation, it’s still vital to do this before moving on.

Fortunately, you can find a variety of fiber wall sockets on the market. They come with different types of termination techniques. You can choose the one that works best for your network’s needs. You can even find fiber wall sockets that are compatible with a particular network system. These units are easy to install and durable. These devices can even be used in different applications such as FTTB and FTTH.

Choosing the right type of fiber wall socket is important to ensure that you are getting the best solution for your project. A good choice is a fiber wall socket that has two ports or four ports. Those with four ports can be used with multiple fiber optic connectors. Those with four ports can be used for fiber patch cables and pigtail connections.

You should also make sure your network is protected from outdoor elements. Cheaper cables often do not have much additional protection, and will likely fail if exposed to rain or wind. Additionally, they are susceptible to UV rays from the sun.


Fiber wall sockets are a key element of an FTTH indoor installation. They provide an easy end-user connection point for fiber optic cables and modules. They can also be used for home entertainment and video surveillance. Some fiber wall sockets even support audio guides. Listed below are some of the different types of fiber wall sockets available.

One type of fiber wall socket is the single-mode fiber wall socket. This type offers symmetrical download and upload speeds. The other type is the duplex option. These devices are available in a variety of styles and port types. Some types include one to four ports. Some also have reserved fiber patch cable storage.

Is it Better to Connect to 5GHz Or 2.4GHz?

Is it Better to Connect to 5GHz Or 2.4GHz?

If you want to connect to the fastest Wi-Fi channel, you must choose the right channel. 5GHz is best for large, stationary devices, while 2.4GHz is better for portable devices. You can also choose a channel with different frequency bands if you want to use both channels at the same time.

2.4 GHz

When choosing a wireless connection, you need to consider whether to connect to the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz band. While the 2.4 GHz band is more common for home use, the 5 GHz band is better for wide-area transmission. However, these bands are not equally reliable. While 2.4 GHz is a good choice for occasional use in large offices and public places, 5 GHz is much more reliable. For example, it is capable of streaming large media files over a secure connection, and downloading large documents without overloading your device.

Wireless Internet speed depends on the type of device and its location. For instance, a laptop that is located in a high-rise building would be best suited to use the 2.4 GHz network. Likewise, a smartphone that uses the 5 GHz band may have higher data transfer rates.

However, the benefits of the 5 GHz band are not universal. It is more expensive to buy 5 GHz equipment compared to 2.4 GHz equipment and can be problematic for a large wireless network. Moreover, 5GHz equipment does not mix with 2.4 GHz equipment, so it is difficult to upgrade a large wireless network using only one band.

The main difference between the two bands is the range. The 2.4 GHz band can offer more coverage than the 5 GHz band. However, the shorter waves of the 5GHz band are less able to penetrate solid objects. This makes the 2.4 GHz band better for long-range data transmission, while the 5GHz band can only sustain high-speed data transmission over a short distance.

The 2.4 GHz band is better for home use than 5 GHz. This is because it is wider and can cover a wider range. It also has higher bandwidth, which makes it easier for the signal to penetrate solid objects. It is a much better choice if you’re worried about being able to keep a connection.

While the 5 GHz band provides greater coverage and higher transfer speeds, it is limited in its coverage area. There are only twenty-four channels in the 5GHz band and each channel is 20 MHz wide. With the help of channel bonding, the channels can be extended to cover larger areas. It is better for smaller homes. However, if you’re trying to keep your network clutter-free, it would be better to stick to the 2.4 GHz band.

The 2.4 GHz band is widely used for WiFi. However, it is also used by many other devices, including cordless phones, microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices, and wireless cameras. In fact, it’s the standard band for WiFi. And while 2.4 GHz has a wider coverage, it transmits data slower than the 5GHz band.

If you want to connect to both the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz bands, you should purchase a dual-band router. Dual-band routers work best for homes with a limited number of devices. A simultaneous dual-band device broadcasts a separate 2.4 GHz and a separate 5 GHz network. However, this type of dual-band router is more expensive than a selectable dual-band device. Nonetheless, the benefits of simultaneous dual-band devices usually outweigh the cost differences.


There are a number of benefits of using the 5GHz band for WiFi connections. First, it is much less crowded than the 2.4GHz band. This means that there will be less interference and fewer devices using the same frequency. As a result, it can offer faster speeds and better throughput. The 2.4GHz band is used by other wireless devices, including cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, wireless cameras, and microwave ovens.

In general, the 5GHz band offers the best performance for high-bandwidth devices, including video conferencing, streaming HD video, and other similar tasks. However, if you only want to use your device for browsing the web and other low-bandwidth tasks, 2.4GHz is still adequate. This is because the 2.4GHz band is used by many homes and public areas, while the 5GHz band is mostly used for personal and office use.

Another benefit of using the 5GHz band is its better performance in non-line-of-sight installations. This is because water doesn’t absorb the frequency as much as the 2.GHz band does. This range is often given a bad reputation for bad performance, but it’s often just a matter of using the technology wrong. For example, the engineers operating the Mars Rover can see the signal from 30 million miles away.

Another advantage of the 5GHz band is the fact that it suffers less interference from other networks. Because of this, it can provide faster speeds for smaller spaces. It can also withstand more interference and is more stable at longer distances. In contrast, 2.4GHz tends to be more prone to interference, which can interfere with your network.

As you can see, the benefits of using the 5GHz band for WiFi are many. In particular, 5GHz is better for gaming and internet connections because it can generate faster speeds. Those speeds can be up to 1 Gb/s. This is important when streaming videos or playing online games.

In general, 5GHz is better for short-range transmissions, while 2.4GHz is better for long-range transmissions. The 2.4GHz band is also more reliable, especially if you’re using it for low-bandwidth activities. The 2.4GHz frequency is recommended for large spaces, as 5GHz signals may drop out if they’re in an open space.

In addition to speed, 5GHz also has better penetration of walls. This makes it a better option for connecting multiple buildings with no Internet. Some wireless devices, like the Ring Doorbell, only work on the 5GHz frequency. Other products, such as the Nest Hello, are compatible with either frequency. Choosing which one is right for you depends on your needs and the location of your router.

5GHz is the most popular frequency for home and office use. It allows for faster streaming of web pages. While the 5GHz band is less common than the 2.4 GHz band, it is still the most popular frequency for use in home and office settings. If you need to download large files quickly, 5GHz is the best option. Many routers are now dual-band, so you can use 2.4 GHz or the 5GHz band.


While the performance of wireless networks may be similar, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz use different bandwidths. A wide channel means more throughput and more speed, but it can also lead to higher congestion. The width of a channel depends on the amount of interference in a particular region. 20 MHz is the most popular channel width in 2.4 GHz, but a 40 MHz channel can provide faster speed.

For video streaming, most customers choose to connect to 2.4GHz. This frequency band has many non-overlapping channels, which makes it a better choice when using WiFi. It also allows users to connect to more devices without interference. It is also faster, with speeds up to 1Gbps.

The frequency of a Wi-Fi network is important because lower frequencies travel further than higher frequencies. As a result, 2.4 GHz may give you a longer range compared to 5 GHz. However, it is important to note that Channels 12 – 14 and 15 – 18 are not compatible with Open Mesh access points. Besides, 5 GHz has significantly more bandwidth. However, it is recommended that the channel width of the 5 GHz network be at least 40 MHz.

If you are using a mobile device, the best channel bandwidth for your device is 20MHz. This is because this frequency is wider and contains more channels than the 2.4GHz band. You will also be able to connect peripheral devices such as printers and scanners to your network using this frequency. It is crucial to know which channel to use for the peripheral devices to avoid network congestion.

The 2.4GHz band is more prone to interference than the 5GHz band. Older routers, Bluetooth devices, and garage door openers are all common sources of interference on this band. 2.4GHz offers better coverage and less interference, but the 5GHz band is a better choice if your device supports it.

While both bands have benefits, the 2.4 GHz band has lower output power limits than its 5GHz counterpart. The latter has higher bandwidth and is able to penetrate buildings better. It also has better scatter performance. It can also penetrate damp objects. Although the 2.4 GHz band is the most popular, there are some limitations.

The 5GHz band is best for devices that move less and use high-bandwidth internet. However, it is less sensitive to interference and requires more open space to operate. In addition to these differences, 5GHz has a higher maximum speed. So if you are considering a wireless router, you should make sure that you choose the right band for your needs.

The best wireless channel for your wireless router is the one that does not have a lot of interference. This band is often overused due to devices like microwaves, Bluetooth devices, and wireless landline phones. By contrast, the 5GHz band is not overloaded with devices, which means you won’t experience as many glitches. Besides, the signal from your router won’t travel as far as the 2.4 GHz channel.