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More about the BWN-FTTR-4K Point de Terminaison Optique (Prise Terminale Optique PTO DTIO 4F SC/APC Pigtails) Product.

What are the technology trends in the field of optical communications worth paying attention to in 2023?

Generally speaking, the current focus of the domestic optical communications industry is focused on the following directions:

1. Full implementation of 400G
2. Accelerated deployment of G.654.E optical fiber
3. The rise of LPO
4. FTTR and 50G PON
5. High-performance computing cluster network

1. Full implementation of 400G

After years of preparations upstream and downstream of the industry chain, this year, the domestic optical communications backbone network will finally usher in the full implementation of 400G.

According to the information provided by experts at the meeting, driven by the “digital data in the east and computing in the west” strategy and the vision of building a “computing power network”, operators are actively deploying all-optical transport capacity construction and carrying out 400G construction and trial operation:

China Telecom has built the first 400G all-optical transport network in the Greater Bay Area, and the ChinaNet backbone network has completed the 400GE IP+ optical long-distance transmission live network pilot.

China Mobile has built a 400G all-optical test network across the four provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Guizhou, and is preparing to launch relevant deployment and implementation by the end of 2023. (It is reported that the centralized procurement of 400G in the province will start in October.)

China Unicom has built 400G trial networks in Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and other places.

400G high-speed interconnection is another upgrade of all-optical transport capacity. It is the result of all-optical forwarding, low latency, high-speed optical modules and other technologies. Its goal is to provide deterministic carrying and the ability to account for quality.

The current reality is that with the massive construction of data centers, the demand for backbone network bandwidth continues to increase. Overall, the inter-provincial export bandwidth will reach the level of over 100 Terabits.

In terms of latency, the basic requirements put forward by our country’s east-to-west computing strategy are: 1 millisecond within the city, 5 milliseconds from the city to the hub node, and 20 milliseconds between hub nodes.

So these all mean that it is imminent to upgrade the backbone network to 400G.

After years of exploration, the single-wavelength 400Gb/s system based on 130GBaud baud rate and QPSK modulation method has become the first choice for domestic long-distance trunk line construction.

CCSA has now completed the release of standards for metropolitan 400G and long-haul 400G, and standards for metropolitan 800G and 400G ultra-longhaul are also in the process of being compiled.

In terms of band expansion, the C6T+L6T band (a total of 12 T) has also become a consensus.

It is worth mentioning that in addition to 400G, technical research and standard construction of 800G and 1.6T are also progressing steadily. Some manufacturers have launched samples and are conducting trials.

Optical modules for 800G and above are continuously being developed in multiple standards organizations. Some standards, such as IPEC, 800G Portal and CCSA, have already been released. Most standards may be released one after another in 2024-2025.

Speed upgrading seems simple, but it involves spectrum expansion, optical device upgrades, module power consumption and volume control, integration requirements, and industrial chain reuse. It is really not as simple as imagined.

The road ahead is long and full of challenges.

2. Accelerated deployment of G.654.E optical fiber

I believe you have also recently seen China Mobile’s centralized procurement bidding announcement for G.654E optical fiber and cable products.

This purchase has accumulated 8,463 skin-length kilometers, equivalent to 1.2279 million core kilometers. Compared with the first 654E optical fiber centralized procurement in 2022 (2,134 skin-length kilometers, equivalent to 332,400 core kilometers), the scale of this centralized procurement has increased nearly 4 times!

The increase in G.654E optical fiber also pave the way for the comprehensive upgrade of the backbone network to 400G.

G.654.E optical fiber has the characteristics of ultra-low loss and low non-linearity, and has demonstrated very good performance in ultra-long-distance optical transmission. It has been unanimously recognized by the three major operators and will be used to build a comprehensive computing power network. Network backbone.

In terms of industry, G.654.E optical fiber has already achieved large-scale production capabilities and has entered the stage of engineering application.

At present, the total length of G.654.E optical fiber in China is only about 30,000 kilometers, accounting for less than 3% of the entire trunk network. In the next few years, the construction scale of G.654.E optical fiber has great potential.

In terms of performance, the loss of G.654.E optical fiber is expected to be optimized to 0.15dB/km in the future, and the transmission flatness of the entire C+L band may also be further improved. This will also be helpful for C+L band applications.

According to statistics, as of June this year, the total length of domestic optical cable networks has reached 61.96 million kilometers, and long-distance optical cable lines have exceeded 1.11 million kilometers.

As the construction of computing power networks further accelerates, 130 trunk optical cables need to be built around the computing power hub nodes.

These newly constructed new optical cable networks will further improve data transmission bandwidth and performance, which is conducive to the upgrade of network architecture.

In terms of fiber optic cables, there are two important technical directions worthy of attention.

First of all, the first one is spatial division multiplexing of multi-core few-mode optical fiber.

Spatial division multiplexing of multi-core few-mode optical fiber has become a feasible path to break through Pbps capacity.

This year, the National Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technology and Network of China Information Technology Group achieved a single-mode 19-core optical fiber transmission system experiment with a total transmission capacity of 4.1Pb/s and a net transmission capacity of 3.61P/s.

The super optical network constructed in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has a total length of more than 160 kilometers, connecting Guangzhou and Shenzhen. It uses FiberHome’s independent space division multiplexing optical fiber and cable technology to create the longest distance and largest capacity space division multiplexing in the world. Optical communication systems.

Standardization around spatial division multiplexing is also being gradually advanced.

In TC6 of China Communications Standards Association, three research topics related to space division multiplexing have been established. In September last year, the ITU-T SG15 meeting released the “Technical Report on Space Division Multiplexing Transmission”.

In general, domestic and international standards organizations are very concerned about this area.

Another important direction is hollow-core optical fiber.

Hollow core fiber, as the name suggests, has an air or vacuum core in the center of the fiber instead of glass or other materials. It is considered a disruptive technology with the characteristics of large bandwidth, low latency and low loss, and is widely favored.

Because the entire medium changes and is transmitted in the air, the delay per kilometer is reduced by 1.54 microseconds.

In terms of ultra-low loss, the theoretical minimum loss can be less than 0.1dB/km. Currently, the one disclosed by the University of Southampton is 0.174dB/km.

Another very important feature of hollow-core optical fiber is that it has ultra-low nonlinearity.

At present, hollow-core optical fiber has attracted a lot of industry attention. Its standardization of optical cable structures and collaborative innovation with transmission systems are still in the early stages, and many institutions are participating in pre-research.

A bottleneck worthy of attention in hollow-core optical fiber is the drawing length.

Currently, solid optical fiber can stretch 10,000 kilometers. However, the limit of hollow-core optical fiber is only 10 kilometers, which is a difference of 3 orders of magnitude. This directly brings huge cost differences and affects large-scale production.

3. The rise of LPO

Last year and the beginning of this year, we were still discussing CPO/NPO. Now, LPO is here again.

As we mentioned earlier, driven by the demand for data bandwidth, optical modules have evolved from 400G to 800G and further to 1.6T.

As the speed increases, problems such as integration and power consumption of traditional pluggable optical modules will become very difficult to solve.

Previously, the industry proposed CPO and NPO. Now, LPO (Linear Pluggable Optics, linear pluggable optical module) is proposed.

LPO replaces the traditional DSP with linear-drive technology and transfers the corresponding overall compensation function to the module’s analog electrical chip and the corresponding ACK Serdes functional unit, achieving low loss, low power consumption, and low latency. , low cost and hot-swappability, etc., have relatively large advantages.

LPO maintains the module’s pluggable form. According to industry data, the power consumption of LPO is 50% lower than that of traditional pluggable optical modules, which is close to that of CPO.

After adopting the linear direct drive solution, the power consumption of silicon photonics, VCSEL, and thin film lithium niobate can be reduced by about 50%.

Low power consumption not only saves power, but also reduces the heat generated by components within the module.

After removing the DSP chip, the system reduces the time for signal recovery and the delay is greatly reduced.

DSP is relatively expensive, and the BOM cost of DSP accounts for about 20-40% of the 400G optical module. LPO’s driver and TIA integrate EQ functions, so the cost will be slightly higher than that of DSP, but the LPO solution can still reduce the cost of optical modules a lot.

Compared with CPO, LPO does not significantly change the packaging form of the optical module. It uses pluggable modules for easy maintenance and can make full use of existing mature technologies.

According to predictions, LPO will achieve mass production by the end of 2024.

Experts at the meeting also expressed different opinions on whether LPO is the optimal solution, believing that in-depth demonstration is needed through design and experiments.

LPO not only has advantages, but also disadvantages.

Because the DSP is removed, stronger SerDes is needed to compensate. And stronger SerDes means that the cost will become higher.

Previously, the most widely used optical module was based on 50G SerDes. Currently, 400G and 800G optical modules are all based on 100G SerDes, and in the future it will be 200G SerDes.

SerDes refers to the speed of the electrical part, and the speed of the optical part has also evolved accordingly. The impact of this evolution on the optical module is that the speed is constantly increasing.

LPO will also bring about interconnection issues. Not only the interconnection between switches, but also the interconnection and interoperability of traditional optical modules. This limits the application scenarios of LPO.

The technical details of LPO are still relatively complicated. Later, Xiao Zaojun will write a special article to introduce it.

By the way, encapsulation.

Traditional optical modules come in various packaging forms. With 400G, 800G, and 1.6T, this situation will change. Packaging formats are constantly converging, such as being reduced to QSFP-DD and OSFP, and related modules may be reduced to OSFP and CFP8.

The convergence of packaging formats is a good thing for industry development.

4. FTTR and 50G PON

At this meeting, another focus is on FTTR and 50G PON at the access network level.

Operators have been actively promoting FTTR in the past two years. At present, various operators have millions of users, and it is said that the number will exceed 10 million by the end of the year.

Operators also implicitly expressed that there is a certain lack of demand for FTTR for home users. Therefore, the focus of FTTR promotion has now begun to shift to a certain extent from FTTR-H (for families) to FTTR-B (for enterprises), including big B and small B (small and micro enterprises).

In terms of PON technology, the current trend is from 10G PON to 50G PON.

China will start promoting the construction of 10G PON around 2021. In less than 3 years, the entire Gigabit optical network has covered more than 500 million households and there are more than 100 million Gigabit users.

Now, what operators are actively carrying out technical verification and reserve is 50G PON. According to predictions, 2024-2025 will be the time for the launch of 50G PON. From 2027 to 2030, 50G PON will reach a certain scale.

At present, the standard formulation work of 50G PON has been basically mature. There are already many prototypes of related products, and operators have also organized trials.

From a technical perspective, 50G uplink is the most difficult and challenging. It is unrealistic for ONU to remain unchanged as before. Either integrating SOA or using high-power lasers remains to be further verified.

In addition to home scenarios, operators have begun to introduce PON technology into industry scenarios, such as industrial PON.

Industry scenarios have higher requirements for latency, so 50G PON needs to focus on improving latency capabilities. Industrial PON has certain requirements in terms of compatibility with multiple protocols in factories, remote power supply capabilities, and anti-interference capabilities. Its challenges are much more complex than those in home broadband scenarios.

In addition, it needs to be mentioned that the sinking of OTN is still progressing.

OTN point-to-multipoint quality dedicated lines can support OTN to further extend to users and further integrate OTN technology with existing ODN, transmission network, and access network. The access side passes through fixed allocation, and the transmission side passes through the hard pipes of OICO and ODO to achieve end-to-end hard isolated transmission.

5. High-performance computing cluster network

AIGC is the hottest topic this year. The optical communications industry has also been driven by the rapid development of AIGC large models and has achieved good performance.

I have written many articles about high-performance networks this year, introducing the network support technology behind the AIGC large model.

AIGC large models require a large number of GPUs to support calculations. The scale of the cluster is getting larger and larger, and the performance requirements of the cluster network are extremely high.

The bandwidth, delay, stability and reliability of the network directly affect the computing time of the GPU cluster and also determine the cost of the entire computing.

Currently, the mainstream technical routes are InfiniBand (IB) and RoCE solutions.

IB is NVIDIA’s private protocol, and the cost is too high, basically 3-5 times that of the latter. Therefore, more and more manufacturers are choosing the new Ethernet RoCE that is transformed from traditional Ethernet combined with RDMA technology.

RoCE is open source, and various manufacturers have related solutions. There are many choices and high cost performance.

Currently, the main GPU used in China is Nvidia A800 (A100 is not available). The interconnection bandwidth of A800 is 400Gbps and A100 is 600Gbps.

The interconnection bandwidth of H100 is as high as 900Gbps (H800 is 450Gbps).

Therefore, foreign countries are stepping up efforts to develop intelligent computing clusters based on 800G optical modules. We still focus on 400G, and the demand for 800G is not too strong. But continued pursuit is still necessary. In the next few years, we will just find ways to move from 400G to 800G.

From a macro perspective, RoCE provides a good opportunity for domestic manufacturers to catch up, and also provides domestic companies with options to develop AIGC large models.

Well, the above is the current progress in the key areas of focus in the domestic optical communications industry.

Comparison of Multimode fiber OM1/2/3/4/5 parameters!

Comparison of Multimode fiber OM1/2/3/4/5 parameters!

Fiber optics are generally divided into single-mode fiber and multi-mode fiber, this time we will mainly start from the multi-mode fiber. Multimode fiber allows many different modes of transmission within it when transmitting signals, and the transmission distance is limited due to the effect of mode dispersion brought about by multiple modes of transmission. Let’s start directly with the OM series of multimode fibers.

Multimode fiber

Multimode fiber

OM1/2/3/4/5 Multimode Fiber’Standards Definition

There are many standards for multimode optical fiber, specifically the multimode fiber standard defined by the TIA organization and later adopted by the ISO/IEC organization.
“OM”-optical mode, is the standard for multimode fiber to indicate the fiber grade. Different grades have different bandwidths and maximum distances, etc. when transmitting.
If you want to know the fastest specific parameters of these 5 specifications, just click to enlarge the table below.

Quick Comparison of OM1/2/3/4

Comparison of OM1/2/3/4 optical fiber parameters and specifications
OM1: refers to 850/1300nm full injection bandwidth in 200/ above the 50um or 62.5um core diameter multimode fiber.
OM2: refers to 850/1300nm full injection bandwidth in 500/ above 50um or 62.5um core diameter multimode fiber.
OM3 is 850nm laser-optimized 50um core diameter multimode fiber, and the fiber transmission distance can reach 300m in 10Gb/s Ethernet using 850nm VCSEL.
OM4 is the upgraded version of OM3 multimode fiber, and the fiber transmission distance can reach 550m.

OM12345 Multimode Fiber’Standards Definition

OM12345 Multimode Fiber’Standards Definition

Internal structure of OM1/2/3/4 optical fiber Comparison

OM1 and OM2:
Both OM1 and OM2 use LED (Light Emitting Diode) as the basic light source in terms of standard and design.
OM3 and OM4:
OM3 and OM4 are optimized on the basis of OM2, and are also suitable for transmission where the light source is LD (Laser Diode). Compared with OM1 and OM2, OM3 has a higher transmission rate and bandwidth, so it is called optimized multimode fiber or 10 Gigabit multimode fiber.

Comparison of OM1/2/3/4 Fiber Optic Functions and Features
OM1: The core diameter and numerical aperture are larger, and it has stronger light collection ability and bending resistance.
OM2: The core diameter and numerical aperture are smaller, which effectively reduces the mode dispersion of the multimode fiber, increases the bandwidth significantly, and reduces the production cost by 1/3.
OM3: The use of flame retardant jacket prevents the spread of flames, prevents the emission of smoke, acid gases and toxic gases, etc., and meets the needs of 10 Gb/s transmission rate.
OM4: Developed for VSCEL laser transmission, the effective bandwidth is more than double that of OM3.
Comparison of OM1/2/2/4 fiber application scenarios
OM1 and OM2:
OM1 and OM2 have been widely deployed for many years for applications inside buildings, supporting Ethernet path transmission with a maximum value of 1 Gb.
OM3 and OM4:
OM3 and OM4 cables are typically used in data center cabling environments, supporting 10G and even 40/100G high-speed Ethernet transmission.

Optical-Fiber-Jumper-LCUPC-LCUPC-OM4-DX-2.0mm-LSZH Optical-Patch-Cord-LCUPC-LCUPC-MM-OM1-DX-2.0mm-LSZH-Orange Optical-Patch-Cords-LCUPC-LCUPC-MM-OM3-DX-2.0mm-LSZH

Multimode fiber OM5

Multimode fiber OM5 known as broadband multimode fiber patch cord, OM5 fiber is a laser-optimized multimode fiber with bandwidth characteristics specified for WDM.
OM5 Fiber Definition
This new fiber classification is designed to support a wide range of “short” wavelengths between 850nm and 950nm, which when aggregated are suitable for high bandwidth applications. OM3 and OM4 are designed to support a single wavelength of 850nm.



1.Fewer Fiber Supports, Higher Bandwidth Applications
The OM5 fiber optic patch cord operates at 850/1300nm and can support at least four wavelengths, whereas the OM3 and OM4 typically operate at 850nm and 1300nm. This means that while traditional OM1, OM2, OM3, and OM4 multimode fibers have only one channel, the OM5 has four channels, which is a four-fold increase in transmission capacity.
Combining short-wave wavelength-division multiplexing (SWDM) and parallel transmission technologies, OM5 requires only eight cores of wideband multimode fiber (WBMMF) to support 200/400G Ethernet applications, greatly reducing the number of fiber cores and lowering network cabling costs to a large extent.

2.Longer Transmission Distance
The transmission distance of OM5 fiber is longer than that of OM3 and OM4. OM4 fiber is designed to support a length of at least 100 meters with 100G-SWDM4 transceivers. But OM5 fiber can support up to 150 meters length with the same transceiver.

3.Lower Fiber Loss
The attenuation of OM5 broadband multimode fiber optic cables has been reduced from 3.5 dB/km in the previous OM3 and OM4 cables to 3.0 dB/km, with the added requirement of increased bandwidth at 953nm.

4.Full Compatibility with OM3 and OM4
OM5 has the same fiber size as OM3 and OM4, which means that it is fully compatible with OM3 and OM4, and no changes are required to apply OM5 to existing cabling.
OM5 fiber is more scalable and flexible, able to support higher speed network transmission with fewer multimode fiber cores, while the cost and power consumption are much lower than single-mode fiber.

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What’s ODN Network Construction?

What’s ODN Network Construction?

ODN Network Construction: Efficient and Digitalized Solutions

1.ODN network construction Introduction

The vision of the Fifth Generation Fixed Network (F5G) is to achieve Fibre to Everywhere. To realize this vision, it is essential to have a fast, flexible, and well-managed Optical Distribution Network (ODN) construction process.

Traditional ODN networking and construction face challenges such as low efficiency and disorganized resource management, leading to high costs. These challenges become more evident in low-density access scenarios where the deployment of optical fibers is both costly and inefficient. In the F5G era, ODN development should address these construction issues and enable flexible networking, rapid deployment, and visualized and manageable ODN systems.

What's ODN network construction?

2.ODN network construction Scope

To address these challenges, quick ODN construction and digital management solutions have been developed. These solutions enhance fiber deployment efficiency, enable digital resource management, and improve overall operation and management efficiency for carriers.

The system structure of the digitalized quick ODN includes pre-connectorized ODN product modules, digital labels, intelligent management terminals, and intelligent optical distribution network management systems.

While primarily applicable to intelligent optical distribution networks in access networks, it can also serve as a reference for other networks utilizing optical fiber connections. These optical distribution networks can gather ODN information through smart terminal devices, such as smartphones equipped with ODN management applications, and utilize digital labels within ODN devices.

For optical distribution networks that gather electronic label information through other methods, this document can be similarly referenced.

Join Bwnfiber at ICT COMM VIETNAM2023

Join Bwnfiber at ICT COMM VIETNAM 2023: Visit Booth G8!

Mark your calendars for the upcoming ICT COMM VIETNAM 2023 exhibition, taking place from June 8th to 10th in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

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Which Device is Used For Wireless Connection?

Which Device is Used For Wireless Connection?

If you’re looking for a wireless connection, you may be wondering which device is used. There are several options: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Access point, Repeater, etc. Hopefully, this article will provide you with some basic information about wireless connectivity. Once you understand your options, you can choose the best one for your needs. However, you should know that each of these options is not the same.


When setting up your wireless connection, you should always choose a device that is compatible with your wireless connection technology. This is because wireless devices use a certain frequency band to transmit and receive data. When a wireless signal is aimed at a particular area, it can travel a long distance.

There are many different types of wireless networks, but most use radio waves. The first type is called a local-area network, or LAN. This type of network can connect to local resources as well as the internet. WLANs can range across a building or even an entire campus, depending on the technology.

Another type of wireless connection is called Wi-Fi Direct. Wi-Fi Direct is popular with consumers and has a wide range of uses. It is often used by entertainment devices such as Roku and many smart TVs. It can also be used by peripherals, such as high-fidelity headsets, wireless printers, and wireless speakers. Wi-Fi Direct connection methods vary by device, and some require you to scan a QR code or enter a numerical PIN. Some devices also have physical buttons to initiate a connection. As the technology has evolved, security has become a priority, and there are many ways to protect your wireless connection and data.

Wi-Fi networks use an access point (AP) to advertise a specific network to users. These devices connect to this network, and it usually carries traffic from the Wi-Fi network to a wired network (ethernet, Ethernet, or other type). Wi-Fi uses radio waves to transmit signals, and cellular phones use radio waves. They use different frequencies and modulations.

Other types of wireless devices use radio frequency signals to communicate. This type of technology is important for Internet and voice communications. Cellphones, radios, GPS systems, and Bluetooth mice are all examples of wireless devices. Wireless chargers are another type of device that interacts with other wireless devices.

Wi-Fi Direct is an advanced type of wireless connection. Although similar to Bluetooth, this type of connection can handle more data at a much higher speed. It is ideal for streaming data or peer-to-peer connections.


Bluetooth is a wireless connection technology that uses radio waves to communicate. It is used to create personal area networks (PANs) by exchanging data between devices. Bluetooth devices connect with each other via a process called pairing. Once the devices are paired, the new connection is automatically initiated. Bluetooth can be used for many applications, such as sending files from a cell phone to a wireless headset, or transferring pictures and information.

Bluetooth devices communicate by forming a wireless network called a piconet. A piconet can have one master device and up to seven slave devices. Additional slaves can join the network, but are not active. The devices can also form multiple piconets. The master device provides synchronization references and can communicate with other devices.

The technology was first used in mobile phones. The first Bluetooth device was a hands-free mobile headset that won the COMDEX Technology Award. Other Bluetooth devices included the Ericsson T36 and T39 mobile phones. Another Bluetooth device was the IBM ThinkPad A30 notebook, which had Bluetooth built into it.

While Bluetooth can connect two devices wirelessly, the range of Bluetooth devices is limited. Because of its short range, Bluetooth is not a good option for large distance connections. However, it can be used in office settings where several Bluetooth enabled devices are near each other. Moreover, it can be used to transfer files between mobile devices and desktop computers.

The Bluetooth technology is secure, but it requires users to exercise caution. Bluetooth devices need to be aware of their environment, especially when pairing or operating in discoverable mode. It is also important to avoid public wireless hotspots, which have a higher risk of connection interception. It is advisable to pair devices together only if you trust their identity and the network they share.

Bluetooth has two versions: Classic Bluetooth and Low Energy Bluetooth. The former is more secure and provides higher data rates than the latter, but both can make wireless connections. The latter is better for small data transfers, as it does not use a lot of bandwidth and is very efficient with battery power.

Access point

For those who are unable to install physical Ethernet cables in their home, a wireless access point can be the ideal solution. It can provide internet connection to a variety of devices, from laptops to wireless audio systems and smart TVs. In addition, an Access Point can be used as an extension of your existing WIFI setup.

Access points can be stand-alone devices, or they can be attached to routers and network switches. APs use a 2.4Ghz or 5Ghz frequency range to connect devices to the LAN or the internet. Some models are weatherproof to withstand the elements. An access point can be used as a wireless connection point in a home or an office.

Access Points are connected to a community or neighborhood network. They are often powered using a Power over Ethernet adapter. These devices can also be connected to the Internet using a USB connection. Power over Ethernet adapters are a popular option for outdoor wireless devices. These devices connect to the community or neighborhood network using a rooftop router.

Some wireless devices support Ad-Hoc mode, which allows devices to connect directly to each other, eliminating the need for an Access Point. However, the devices must be configured the same, so that they will all share the same network. For a wireless network to be a success, each device needs to have the same configuration and role.

Another option is a mesh network, which extends a point-to-multipoint network across a larger area. However, this solution requires all devices to be in Ad-Hoc mode. It is not possible to extend a point-to-multipoint network to cover a community using a single point-to-multipoint network. A mesh network can also be used to extend a client site across several buildings.


Repeaters are used to extend a wireless signal to a wider area. They don’t require additional wiring, and they can be easily installed. You just need to place the Repeater about half way between the router and your computer. Once you have the Repeater installed, you can start enjoying faster internet access.

You can configure the Repeater by setting its IP address and SSID. Also, you need to set the repeater’s RF channel to match the one used by your wireless access point. Depending on the repeater’s model, you may need to configure it differently than your main router.

Wireless Repeaters require a good signal. The Repeater should be placed somewhere near the router, so that it receives a good signal from the router. If the Repeater is located in a room with thick walls, it will decrease the signal quality. In a large room, the Repeater should be placed somewhere in the middle of the room. The repeater should be away from walls or other barriers that can block the signal. It must also be placed in an open area that is free of reinforced concrete walls, as these will significantly reduce the repeater’s performance.

Wireless Repeaters help to extend coverage by boosting weak signals. Wireless Repeaters are also useful for people traveling in areas that don’t get a good signal. They can regenerate weak signals while traveling, which is very useful for smooth roaming. They also improve the strength of a wireless signal and improve connectivity.

Wireless Repeaters work like remote antennas for your modem. They can be used to connect to multiple networks. There are several types of Repeater, depending on their purpose. Wireless Repeaters have different configurations, but most of them have the same basic function. Wireless Repeaters are cumbersome to install and use. If you have several wireless access points, you may need more than one Repeater. There are also dozens of models and configurations to choose from.

Wireless Repeaters also extend the range of a wireless signal. However, they cannot replace wireless bridging.

What is IP Address for Router?

What is IP Address for Router?

You need to know the IP address of your router to access the settings of your router and configure connected devices. An IP address is a unique identification of a computer on a network, which can either be the Internet or a smaller network within your home. An IP address is also referred to as a public IP address, which is the IP address that your device has on the public Internet. The public IP address will change every time you connect your device to the Internet. You can find the public IP of your device using several online tools.

How to find router’s IP address

If you’re having trouble connecting to your router, you might want to find out how to find its IP address. This can be done in a few different ways. One way is to access your computer’s control panel. This will allow you to view your network’s settings and information. It also allows you to view the IP address of other connected devices.

The IP address of your router is called the default gateway. It can be found using the following methods. To find your router’s IP address, open the “Network and Internet” menu on your computer. Click on the “View Your Network Properties” link on the right side of the window. Once you’ve done this, your router’s IP address will show up next to the Default Gateway.

Once you have your router’s IP address, you can access the router’s web interface. You’ll need this to make changes to your network settings. For example, if you’d like to change your password, you’ll need to know your router’s IP address.

Another way to find the router’s IP address is to access your router’s administration page. There, you’ll find a tab with the IP address and the Default Gateway. You might need to scroll a bit to find it. In addition, if you’re using IPv6, you’ll need to know the IP address of the device you’re connecting to.

On a Mac, you can also find the IP address of your router by opening your Mac’s System Preferences. Go to the Network menu and choose Wi-Fi. Next, choose Advanced. Once you’ve done this, click the TCP/IP tab. Your router’s IP address should appear next to the textual default.

Private IP addresses

Private IP addresses are IP addresses used on a private network. These IP addresses are used in residential, enterprise and office environments. They are defined in both IPv4 and IPv6 specifications. You can use private IP addresses on a router to access the network. However, private IP addresses are limited in number. That’s why it is important to know how to create a private IP address range for your router. The ranges can be any length, but you must use a minimum of eight.

IPv4 is the most common internet protocol. It was launched in 1970 and consists of 32-bit numeric strings. IPv4 is only capable of supporting four billion unique addresses. Using private IP addresses allows you to conserve IPv4 addresses. The downside to private IP addresses is that they’re not publicly visible to others.

Private IP addresses are useful because they allow you to have a private network that doesn’t need to synchronize with the internet. Your router will only be able to receive traffic that’s from devices on your network. Private IP addresses also allow you to assign multiple addresses to each device connected to your network.

A private IP address is also called a local IP address. It is unique to a specific network. This is different from a public IP address, which can be accessed by everyone on the Internet. Because it’s local, private IP addresses are much more secure, since only devices on the network will be able to see each other.

When you setup your router, you must know its IP address. You can find this information in your router’s setup page. Your ISP can also use this information to determine the default gateway, which is the IP address your router uses for traffic that is destined to a destination outside of your network. This is what’s called NATing.

LAN side IP address

The LAN side IP address of a router is the IP address the router gives devices connected to it. Devices get this address one of three ways. The first is by asking the router for it when they first connect. This is known as DHCP and it is the most common way. The IP address is typically assigned to a device for a day or two. In some cases, the device can reserve an IP address and keep it for a longer time.

The second type of IP address is the administrative interface, or management interface. This is the IP address that is assigned to a device and is usually used to access the admin interface, also known as the web UI. However, it’s important to note that this is different from the IP address of the LAN interface. A router serves a dual purpose, making the wired LAN more accessible to devices, and increasing WiFi wireless coverage.

For PC users, the LAN side IP address of the router can be found in the network settings of the computer. It’s located next to Default Gateway. Sometimes, a computer user will have to scroll down a bit to find it. In IPv4, the IP address is separated by periods, while in IPv6 it is separated by colons.

The router uses a technique called Network Address Translation, or NNAT, to translate the IP addresses of local devices onto the IP address of the Internet. This makes the traffic appear as if it’s coming from the same IP address.


IP address and DHCP are two terms that describe how a router assigns and manages an IP address. A DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address to a computer when it wants to connect to the internet. This IP address is temporary and may not be the same if the computer disconnects and reconnects. In addition, a DHCP server will monitor the device’s usage and return the IP address if the device does not use it for a certain amount of time.

In addition, DHCP allows network administrators to easily manage IP addresses. This feature reduces the work of network administrators and helps large networks run more efficiently. The service also helps administrators manage user mobility by making available IP addresses that are no longer in use. In addition, DHCP helps administrators set time limits for IP addresses, preventing one device from using the same IP address for too long.

The DHCP process uses relay agents and servers to assign IP addresses. The client connects to the internal network and communicates with the DHCP server for its IP address. Once this process is complete, the device can go online and begin using the network. The DHCP server then responds with a list of available IP addresses and configuration options.

To check if your router is using DHCP, go to the network and click Network and Sharing Center. In the Ethernet window, locate the IPv4 Default Gateway. If you’re using a Mac, click on the Apple icon in the top left corner of the screen. Then click on the Network Connection option, and select Advanced. There, you’ll find your router’s IP address.


A router with NAT is a type of networking device that translates IP addresses. A NAT device has a pool of IP addresses that it uses when needed, and returns to the pool when it is no longer needed. For instance, if computer A needed an IP address from the pool, it would take it and hand it back, then use a different public address from the pool when it needed it again. Because of this, NAT devices have a limit on the number of users that can use the same public IP address.

NAT routers can also use a private IP address, allowing them to be routed through a private network. The NAT router will look up the destination IP address from the packet and translate it to a unique private network IP address. When a NAT device receives a packet that does not have a destination address, it will decline it. It does this by inspecting the data packet’s DNS A and PTR records before forwarding it to the destination.

The NAT router will use an address translation table to translate the destination address. This table will have a table that has the source address and the destination address. It will also have a timer and will delete the entries once the timer has expired. This is a good way to prevent NAT routers from reusing IP addresses.

NAT routers can be configured in various ways to provide different services. One such configuration involves allowing the private IP address to be used for internal network communication. DHCP assigns private IP addresses to devices on the network, so the private addresses will not conflict with the public IP address. NAT gateway routers can assign private IPs to external devices in the same network, saving the private network money and boosting security.