Smart Healthcare and Telemedicine applications are transforming healthcare in many ways. These applications help doctors and healthcare professionals to provide better care for patients and to diagnose and treat illness more efficiently. One such application is remote robotic-assisted surgery. In this article, we will discuss some of the key issues associated with this type of technology.
GPRS/UMTS enabled devices
Telemedicine applications are used to improve healthcare delivery to remote patients. It involves the integration of wireless and wired transmission of medical data. To achieve this, GPRS/UMTS enabled devices are needed to capture and transmit biomedical signals. These signals include ECG, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and temperature.
The data transmitted is displayed on a mobile phone. A telemedicine processor module is used to capture and process physiological signals. This device can be integrated with mobile phones and WiMax to extend telemedicine monitoring to virtually anywhere.
Biomedical signals are typically stored in flexible time slots. They can be retrieved by clinicians while they are away from the hospital.
A mobile telemedicine system transmits multi-channel biomedical signals over a GPRS network to a hospital. Typically, it can be used to monitor a patient’s heart rate and oxygen saturation, which are typically measured by electrodes placed on the patient’s chest.
There have been a number of studies on the effectiveness of a mobile telemedicine system. They have evaluated the ability of the system to transmit medical data, and the efficiencies of the system.
Some of the most important factors that affect the efficiency of a telemedicine system are the quality of incoming data and the speed at which it is transmitted. To determine the effectiveness of the system, a number of single and multi-channel tests have been performed. Single channel transmissions have been able to successfully send medical data.
Multi-channel tests have been conducted in order to determine the maximum possible throughput for a GPRS enabled device. Tests with two and four channels have been conducted. However, single-channel transmissions were easier to perform.
The prototype system was tested in a variety of mobile environments. The performance of the system was rated in terms of average GPRS data throughput, completion times and the total amount of data transmitted. Mobile tests were carried out in both an indoor and outdoor environment. In the indoor mobile environment, completion times were faster.
Performance was also determined in relation to the types of mobile phone that were used in the tests. The results showed that throughputs and completion times depended on the GPRS mobile class.
5G mmWave frequencies
The fifth-generation (5G) network will offer a range of opportunities for consumers and industries alike. However, there are a number of technical and socioeconomic challenges involved with the deployment and roll out of 5G networks. Those who want to take advantage of the new technology must address those issues now.
One of the most important 5G benefits is the ability to support mmWave frequencies. This provides increased bandwidth, faster speeds, and improved connectivity. These characteristics can be utilized in consumer applications such as immersive education, improved industrial automation, and virtual reality.
Aside from speed and bandwidth, mmWave can also improve communication reliability. As a result, the ability to detect and monitor moving objects is enhanced. In addition, it can be used for E-health systems.
For smart healthcare and telemedicine applications, mmWave frequencies will be needed for secure and interoperable connections. This will enable digital innovation in health care. Moreover, it will help prevent wrong diagnosis and treatment.
Another benefit of 5G is that it can support air ambulances. Air ambulances need the high speed and response time that this network can offer. It can support up to 100 kilometer per hour.
In healthcare, mmWave frequency can be used to measure vital signs, such as pulse rate and respiration rate, without the need for electrodes or radar technology. In addition, this is a safe approach for measuring vital signs in a clinical setting.
Another major use case for 5G in healthcare is the use of mMTC (Massive Machine Type Communication) between heterogeneous IoT devices. Using massive MIMO and beamforming, a massive number of heterogeneous IoT devices can connect to a single 5G network. With the combination of mMTC and NS, users will be able to receive guaranteed data rates, as well as increased flexibility and scalability of operation.
Another use case of 5G in healthcare is the ability to monitor patients on a remote basis. A wearable sensor can be worn by a patient, and the signal can be sent to a nurse in another part of the building. This is a highly effective solution for healthcare.
Remote robotic-assisted surgery
The technology of robotic-assisted surgery has been made more feasible with the development of high-speed communication networks. This technology allows the surgeon to perform complicated procedures remotely, even from a remote location. However, the use of such a system is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, there are many advantages that it can bring. Among them, the cost and mental burden are reduced.
As robotic-assisted surgery technology advances, it will become more and more widespread. With the rollout of 5G networks, the use of robotic-assisted surgery will continue to expand. But there are some pitfalls to consider. For instance, the telecommunications network must be stable to ensure the robot’s functioning.
Besides, the surgeon may not touch the patient in order to perform the procedure. He/she may instead control the robot with a joystick-like controller. When the transmission delay is too long, the robot cannot perform the surgery properly.
In this study, an analysis was performed on a commercially available VPN network to determine its reliability. It was used to connect a robotic console with robotic arms. Using NetDisturb software, the network was allowed to vary the time delay to 150 ms.
The study also evaluated the effect of the latency on the task completion. The results showed that the higher the latency, the longer the task took to complete. Also, the higher the error rate.
Consequently, a lower CB was needed to facilitate the RRS. This was verified by reducing the CB to 100 Mbps. If the signal transmission is delayed more than 300 ms, the robotic-assisted surgery will not be possible.
Toumai(r) is a surgical robotic device that can be connected using a commercial communication network. It has been tested for safety in clinical trials. And it was approved for marketing in China in January 2022. Its features include a 3D realistic surgical field, highly flexible wrist surgical instruments, and the capability to perform surgeries across miles.
Several other manufacturers are considering developing similar technologies. However, it is important to understand the differences between the different models. Moreover, make sure that the surgeons are well-trained and the credentials are up-to-date.
Limitations of 5G network scenarios
A 5G network scenario for smart healthcare and telemedicine applications offers the ability to create a secure environment for data transmission. It also provides the option to implement a resilient network and support diverse performance needs. Moreover, it allows users to access real-time data. The following paper describes how 5G network scenarios for smart healthcare and telemedicine applications can be used to enhance the quality of life of the human population.
One important advantage of 5G is its capacity to handle a large number of connected devices. While 4G can connect around 60,680 devices per kilometer, 5G can connect up to one million user devices per kilometer. In addition, 5G can provide up to 100 kilometer per hour speed.
To facilitate the design of a 5G network, the communication requirements of a use case must be identified. This information will guide the design of a resilient network. By understanding the communications technical requirements of a specific use case, the system can be more effective and reliable.
Several key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to evaluate the reliability of a network. These KPIs include latency, jitter, packet loss rate, throughput, and bandwidth. Each of these measures has its own importance in assessing the quality of service (QoS).
Other important aspects of a communication network are its coverage, network resource elasticity, and privacy. All of these KPIs are relevant to a wide range of applications, including smart healthcare and telemedicine.
Using a quantitative KPI can help to determine the feasibility of a 5G-enabled healthcare use case. However, the size of the set of parameters can significantly affect the performance of a use case.
For instance, in a healthcare context, the amount of time required for a user device to establish a connection is a key measurement of accessibility. If a patient is unable to connect to a health care provider due to a lack of connectivity, even a nanosecond delay can result in a fatal disease.
Another important aspect of a 5G network is its ability to reduce packet loss. This means that a single communication device cannot experience multiple packet drops.